Vivat ribbons were very popular German patriotic items, primarily during the early and mid-war periods. They were made of silk. Most measure approximately 2 ½” x 16.” In addition to being patriotic, they also often benefitted the German Red Cross. This example commemorates the Austrian recapture of Lemberg, the capital of Galacia (present-day L’vov in Western Ukraine). The action was on the Eastern Front, and was aided by August von Mackensen’s Eleventh Army troops. (They had retaken the Przemysl Fortress just prior to Lemberg). Von Mackensen received the prestigious Order of the Black Eagle and was promoted to field marshal due to these actions. The ribbon’s color is deep gold. It depicts a giant hand forcing a jailor’s hand to release a key above a fortress with its gate flung open. A short verse praising the victory appears next, just above Lemberg’s jubilant residents welcoming their liberators. This is followed by the phrase “Befreiung Lemberg am 22 Juni 1915” (Liberation of Lemberg on June 22, 1915). The Berlin manufacturer’s name and the attribution that the German Red Cross benefitted from the Vivat’s sale appear at the bottom.