This is a Vivat Ribbon commemorating the Battle of Riga, which concluded on 3 September 1917. A great deal about this Vivat is historically interesting. First, I have never seen a Vivat issued this late in the war. Dozens were issued in 1914/1915. As the war news worsened, far fewer were issued in 1916. I cannot remember seeing another Vivat from this late in the war. A significant reason exists for the issue of this Vivat. The Battle of Riga was the penultimate action designed to bring the Russian government to the peace table. Riga was (and still is) an important Russian port. With its capture by the Germans on this date, the Russians had another reason to settle. The withdrawal of Russian troops on their Eastern Front freed hundreds of thousands of troops for service on Germany’s Western Front. At this point, another fourteen months of war remained. On more than one occasion, the Germans came very close to turning the tables on the Allies (Great Britain, France, and the U.S.) before fresh troops from the U.S. decided the conflict’s outcome. The Vivat Ribbon measures 15 1/2″ x 2 1/2.” It is light-brown in color. Vivats generally were offered under the auspices of the German Red Cross.