This is a consignment item. It is the Erinnerungszeichen für Verdienstliche Leistungen im Kriegsjahre 1866 für Zivilärzte (Honor Badge for Meritorious Service in War-Year 1866 by Civilian Doctors), which was awarded during the 1866 Austro-Prussian War. It is a pinback award that measures 2″ x 1 3/4,” and is shaped like an oversized cross. Each arm boasts a caduceus, the ancient sign of a physician. In the cross’s center is the war’s year, 1866. König Ludwig (Mad) II was Bavaria’s monarch during the conflict. It is written that he was greatly affected when he witnessed Bavarian soldiers suffering alongside their Austrian, Württembergian, and Saxon compatriots after their defeat by Prussia and her allies. In addition to the creation of this decoration, Ludwig also instituted the Military Merit Order, Military Service Cross, and the 1866 Bavarian War Honor Medal for the same war. This very rare decoration was for doctors who served Bavaria during the conflict. Only forty were created.